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Effluent treatment plant calculations

Effluent treatment plant calculations

Effluent is the stream that leaves a chemical reactor and, in engineering, is defined as the outflow of water or gas from a natural body of water, a man-made building, or both. It may also be described as Waste water, whether treated or untreated, that drains from a treatment facility, Effluent treatment plant calculations a sewage line, or an industrial outlet.

Thus, with the aid of an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), waste water, or untreated effluent, is converted into treated effluent. The environment is then securely supplied with clean water. Although effluent treatment is the most beneficial when it comes to wastewater purification, Effluent treatment plant calculations its process is somewhat complicated and needs a proper understanding. A lot of calculations are also done for effluent treatment plant and here we are going to learn about some calculations incorporated:

Loading rate:

Volumetric loading rate (kg of BOD applied per unit volume of the reactor per day) or kg of BOD applied per day per unit mass of microorganisms present in the reactor are two ways to quantify the amount of organic matter being loaded into the reactor (i.e. in the aeration tank), Organic loading rate, often known as F/M, This may be computed as follows:

Volumetric loading = Q x L x 10-3/ Vol

Where, L = Influent BOD5 to aeration tank, mg/L

Q = Flow rate, m3/day

Vol. = Volume of aeration Tank, m3

Organic Loading Rate, F/M = Q x L / (V x Xt)

Where, Xt = MLVSS concentration in the aeration tank, mg/L

The primary element influencing BOD elimination is the F/M ratio. Higher BOD removal will result from lower F/M levels. By adjusting the MLVSS concentration in the aeration tank, the F/M may be changed.

Solid Retention Time (SRT) or Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT):

The length of time the microbial mass is kept in the system affects how well the ASP performs in terms of removing organic debris. The sludge’s retention is influenced by how quickly it settles out in the SST. It will be easier to maintain the system’s ideal SRT if the sludge settles nicely in the SST and can be properly recirculated in the aeration tank. If the sludge has poor settling qualities, on the other hand, it won’t settle in the SST and recirculation of the sludge will be challenging, which might lower the SRT in the system. As described below, one can estimate the SRT.

Food to mass ratio:

The ratio of food entering the activated sludge process to the volume of microorganisms in the tank is known as the “food to mass ratio.”

Sludge volume index:

The amount of retum sludge is calculated using a volumetric method. The volume of the dudge in millilitres (ml) for each gramme of dry weight of suspended solids (SS). Measured after 30 minutes of settling, is known as the sludge volume index (SVI). The SVI fluctuates between 50 and 150 ml/g of SS. Lower SVI suggests improved sludge settling.

Quantity of Return Sludge:

For traditional ASP, solid concentration is typically maintained at 1500 to 3000 mg/L (MLVSS 80% of MLSS) and at 3000 to 6000 mg/L for entirely mixed ASP. In order to keep this concentration, the amount of return sludge is calculated. Typically, the sludge to ratio ranges from 20 to 50%. For traditional ASP and fully mixed ASP. The F/M ratio is maintained at 0:2 to 0.4 and 0.2 to 0.6, respectively.

BOD calculation:

(Initial D.O. – Final DO)* 300 ml)/Sample Volume (mL)

Ordinary lakes and streams often have a tiny quantity of dissolved oxygen (DO). An essential component of mineral water is dissolved oxygen, which preserves the aesthetic value of aquatic species, streams, and lakes. As a function of biological oxygen demand, organic matter decomposition in water is monitored. However, manmade causes such as environmental pollution and others can lower the quantity of dissolved oxygen in aquatic environments.

The biochemical oxygen demand is essentially a measurement of the volume of oxygen needed for aerobic bacteria to decompose organic waste in water. Commercial and manufacturing industries must implement a wastewater pre-treatment or disposal programme in order to comply with the BOD limit.

Why Netsol!

Leading producer of water and wastewater treatment plants, Netsol Water is situated in Greater Noida. Based on customer feedback and the calibre of our work, we are the industry’s most demanding organisation.

We are regarded as the top producers of industrial RO plants, sewage treatment plants, commercial RO plants. Water softening plants, and effluent treatment plants. Our USP, aside from this, is our 24-hour customer service.

You may reach us by phone at +91-9650608473 or by email at

If you have any questions about our products, services, or support.

Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry

Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry

Due to its high-water use, the dairy business is one of the most environmentally damaging of all food industries. One of the main industries contributing to water contamination is dairy. Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry given the rising demand for milk, the dairy industry in India is predicted to expand quickly, and waste generation and associated environmental issues, are also given more weight.

The dairy business may perform a number of activities, such as pasteurisation, cream, cheese, milk powder, etc. When released to the surface of the land or water, poorly treated wastewater with high levels of contaminants produced by treatment systems, causes significant environmental issues.

Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry

For every litre of milk produced, approximately 2.5 litres of effluent are produced. Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry a by-product mostly produced in the cheese industry, is the principal pollutant in wastewater from milk processing.

Due to its high organic and nutrient loading, dairy processing has a significant negative influence on the environment. Extreme pH variations and large volumes of dairy effluent cause a variety of pollution issues, such as rapid dissolved oxygen depletion because of the high organic loading, which causes anaerobic conditions, the release of volatile toxic substances, the extinction of aquatic life, and ensuing environmental harm.

Characteristics of dairy effluent

While, the industry produces milk, butter, or cheese, it also produces large quantities of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), which need to be treated before being released into the environment. Other typical effluents include milk fat, suspended particles, and dairy-related smells that must be controlled.

Such a dairy effluent treatment plant is necessary for every dairy production facility, in order to effectively address the uneven levels of BOD, COD, suspended, and dissolved solids, and enable the safe disposal of industrial waste.

ETP Treatment Units for dairy industry

  1. Skimmer Tank
  2. Tank for Equalization
  3. Aeration Tank
  4. Settling Tank
  5. Oxidation Tank

Treatment Steps in dairy effluent treatment plants

The effluent from the numerous point sources is gathered in a combined subterranean sewer, transported to the effluent tank, where it is equalised before being fed into the following units. The effluent goes via the skimming tank, which is an oil and grease separator, and then is split in two and goes through the aeration tank. The combined aeration tank effluent travels into the oxidation ditch. The oxidation ditch’s cleaned effluent is either released into the sewer system or used for gardening purposes.

Steps in dairy effluent treatment plant are as follows:

  • Using pH controllers like caustic or acid, the pH level is initially raised to 8.5. Any emulsions are later broken down, and solids are made to precipitate with the aid of a de-emulsifier.
  • Dissolved air flotation and flocculation are two additional crucial phases in the treatment of dairy effluent. The wastewater is cleaned further using the air flotation process, by being flocculated into a slow mix zone, where the smaller particles are aggregated into larger ones.
  • The Air Dissolving system blows the treated effluent, pressurises it, and dissolves it using air. This is how the Dissolved Air Flotation process operates.
  • The batch of sludge is then discharged in accordance with environmental laws. After being pumped through the filter press or by passing it through membrane processes.

As a result of the Effluent Treatment System created especially for the dairy industry. Less money is spent on operations, the dairy operations run smoothly, while environmental standards are met.

Here are some noteworthy aspects of our dairy wastewater treatment facility:

  • Water use can be reduced and cooling water can be managed for reuse, with careful chemical application.
  • Nozzles can be installed that are high pressure, which restrict water usage and ensure saving every drop of water.
  • Effluent can be made into treated water with processes like membrane separation and absorption, after which water is safe to reuse.
  • Our effluent treatment plants for dairies can also collect effluents from processing systems, sanitary installations, and even from condensation systems, resulting in proper wastewater treatment for better reuse.

About Netsol Water Solutions

With clients from all around the country, Netsol Water Solutions have more than a decade of experience. Our environmental services encompass the idea of commissioning effluent treatment plants for dairy industries. Contracts for sewage/wastewater treatment plant operation and maintenance, installation of the entire plant under construction. Environmental impact assessment studies, environmental audits, water supply and sewage system designs for the townships. Environmental management planning, and disposal structure designs, are all included.

For any other support, inquiries, or product purchases, call on +91-9650608473 or email at

Effluent Treatment Plant Chemicals

Effluent Treatment Plant Chemicals


It is the duty of all industries to make sure that their trade effluent complies with all applicable municipal, regional, and federal regulations. The ability of a corporation to discharge wastewater into a river, lake, sewer, or other outfall will typically depend on the wastewater’s composition meeting certain requirements. Effluent Treatment Plant Chemicals These parameters will differ significantly between nations and industries, but they typically include the temperature, COD (chemical oxygen demand), pH, FOG (fat, oil, and grease) content, proportion of suspended solids, and concentrations of heavy metals, sulphates, and other industry-specific chemicals in the effluent. Numerous regulatory bodies also regulate the procedures to be utilised. The frequency of wastewater testing, carrying out frequent audits and spot checks to verify compliance. A licence may be cancelled, effectively stopping a firm in its tracks. But it is more likely that noncompliance will result in financial penalties.

What use does the effluent treatment plant serve?

Most businesses in a variety of industries utilise effluent treatment plants (ETPs) to purify water and remove any toxic and non-toxic materials or chemicals. It so that it can be reused or released in the environment with less environmental harm.

Effluent treatment plant chemicals

pH neutralizers, anti-foaming agents, coagulants, and flocculants are the four primary categories of chemicals used in wastewater treatment. Effluent Treatment Plant Chemicals.

pH neutralizers are the simplest class of chemicals; however, their uses and benefits depend on the process that generates the wastewater. In order to minimize undesired chemical reactions when wastewater combines with other effluent. Wastewater effluent going into the sewage system should ideally be entirely neutral at pH 7, which is neither too acidic nor too basic. If wastewater is discharged directly into a lake or river, pH neutralization is even more crucial since localised pH changes can harm species and have a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem.

Unfortunately, a lot of industrial and manufacturing operations involve basic or acidic chemicals that are ultimately flushed away. Such as bleach to clean food production facilities or acid to etch metal parts. Additionally, post-process water treatment can involve pH modification (often from acidic to basic) to precipitate out dissolved pollutants such heavy metals and hazardous metals. Which then need to be neutralised before outflow. It is easy to make sure that the pH of the effluent outflow to the sewer is within the specified standards by adding modest. Carefully regulated dosages of a strongly acidic or, more frequently, basic substances (such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH)) during wastewater processing.

The next class of substances used in wastewater treatment are anti-foaming agents. Due to the fact that foam is created when air bubbles in wastewater are released. It can be a major concern for many industrial processes.Foams can decrease the effectiveness of water processing by altering the fluid’s physical qualities, which increases mechanical wear on pumping systems and causes drainage issues by jamming sieves and filters. Additionally, foams can lead to deposits forming in storage tanks and processing vessels. Increasing the need for cleaning, and posing health risks by promoting bacterial growth. Foams can also be visually offensive and harm a local business’s reputation.

Although there are several anti-foaming agents on the market, including insoluble oils, silicones, alcohols, stearates, and glycols. They are all fundamentally low viscosity compounds that break down surface foam and cause air bubbles to pop. Anti-foaming agents are regarded as a simple class of chemical by many water treatment chemical suppliers. But choosing the right agent and dosing regimen can significantly affect the effectiveness of water treatment plants and ongoing operational costs. In terms of both chemical consumption and higher maintenance costs.

The final two main categories of water treatment chemicals. Coagulants and flocculants, work together to clarify wastewater and remove suspended solids.

To balance the charge of suspended particles, coagulants. Which are low molecular weight, ionically charged compounds that are normally positively charged, are utilised.

They can be organic polymers or inorganic compounds made of aluminium or iron that work against the “repulsive” action that prevents negatively charged particles from aggregating. The charge-neutralized particles are subsequently bound together into larger aggregates, or flocs. Using high molecular weight flocculants to hasten the water clarification process.

There are a good number of coagulants and flocculants out there, and the best combination will rely much on the effluent flow composition and the water treatment plant’s design. Most wastewater treatment facilities that employ chemical treatment techniques rely on either settlement or flotation to remove suspended solids.

The exact design of the plant should be carefully matched to the nature of the effluent, but generally speaking. Settlement strategies are used to remove heavy solids. Which are common in manufacturing industries, while floatation is better suited to do so, for example in food processing applications. The operation of the plant and the kind of suspended material that needs to be removed should both. We taken into consideration when selecting a coagulant and flocculant. Making the proper decisions can have a big impact on both profitability and regulatory compliance.


Netsol Water Solutions are well-known for producing and providing our customers with a variety of Effluent Treatment Plant Chemicals (ETP) Chemicals. Our selections of these are made with high-quality chemicals that come from reputable and approved industry suppliers. In order to provide our prestigious clients with products. The highest calibre and without defects, these substances are also rigorously examined by quality experts. These are offered by us to customers at fair market rates.

Benefits of industrial RO plants

Benefits of industrial RO plants

A full water purification system that can rapidly remove pollutants from water is known as an industrial RO plant. A pre-treatment unit, a RO (reverse osmosis), and a post-treatment unit are all parts of the system. While the RO unit filters out tiny particles, the pre-treatment unit filters out larger ones. Benefits of industrial RO plants that they post-treatment unit can be used to further purify the water or to put minerals back into it. Customers benefit from industrial RO plants because they may get clean, secure water for drinking, cooking, and other uses.

Utilizing an industrial RO plant has advantages for higher water quality, better taste, and longer equipment lifespan. Additionally, users will reduce their monthly water expenses. Let us get to know each of the benefit in detail for better understanding.

Environmental Advantages:

Less hazardous waste water is one of the key environmental advantages of employing an efficient reverse osmosis system. This is because the production of the permeate doesn’t require any dangerous chemicals (pure water). Benefits of industrial RO plants one of the greenest methods for treating industrial wastewater is reverse osmosis. The capture and proper disposal of impurities within the mains water feed are another environmental benefit of RO. Without the discharge of hazardous chemically saturated water to the effluent or drain.

Without using chemicals, resins, or ion exchange beds, our state-of-the-art membrane design filters out pollutants from the water supply. In compared to a membrane system, the removal and disposal of the resins and ion exchange beds has a significant environmental effect at the end of the life of chemical-based systems. An RO system’s concentrated pollutants can then be released directly to the drain without the requirement for an additional, expensive effluent treatment step.

Cost Advantages:

While the cost of employing reverse osmosis and membrane components is down, the price of acid and caustic solutions is still rising. Electricity is the main expense for reverse osmosis systems. Modern water filtration systems use less energy, which results in reduced operational costs.

The installation of a RO system allows for direct input into the manufacturing line or storage in a holding tank before usage as needed. Wastewater streams can pass through an RO system, which helps to lower disposal costs by reusing the water again in the process.

Benefits for Health and Safety:

The fact that no dangerous chemicals are used in a reverse osmosis system to provide high-quality water is one of the key advantages for health and safety. Traditional resin-based ion exchange systems employ exceedingly hazardous acids and alkalis. Reverse osmosis replaces conventional processes like chemical treatment with more efficient and portable gear. By removing the conflicting risks of physical handling and having hazardous chemicals on site, this makes the workplace safer for the employees.

Maintenance Advantages:

Because it is a self-contained device, the RO system is very low maintenance. It is self-cleaning and operator involvement is low. Instead of being actively maintained, it just needs daily supervision from the staff that are already there.

With little downtime required, productivity is maintained. Pre-filter replacement is quick and easy, and it is ergonomically sound. Depending on a number of variables, including the kind and quantity of feed water. The membranes can last two to three years. In contrast to resin-based systems. Which may require days, 100% of the membranes within a specific system may be replaced in a matter of hours.


With these advantages and benefits, reverse osmosis utilisation is expected to rise across all industrial sectors. It provides less risks to employees, is more effective, economical, ecologically benign, and needs little upkeep. Both commercial and industrial operations can employ reverse osmosis.

If you are curious to know more about the best commercial or industrial RO manufacturing company in your vicinity, feel free to contact us an at +91-9650608473 or